A few years ago, I read Steven Leinwand’s Accessible Mathematics – 10 Instructional Shifts That Raise Student Achievement. The idea that small instructional shifts can have a big outcome really resonated with me. My first reaction was that this is all so “do-able”. I found myself checking them off – I could do this and this and this to incorporate these shifts.
I picked the book up again this weekend. I wanted to revisit and check my progress. Exactly how was I doing in bringing about these changes? I thought I would take each of the ten shifts and look at what I have done or haven’t done to make that a part of my regular instruction.
The first shift is to incorporate ongoing cumulative review into every day’s lesson.
I started tackling this shift by building specific time into my lesson for review every day. I decided that I wanted to do a very quick review activity at the start of class to get students engaged as soon as they walked in the door. I also wanted a slightly larger chunk of time to review ideas that take more than a minute or two.
I call my opening review the Math Minute because I wanted it to last only a minute or two. I could use this time to do quick review on number operations skills (fraction, decimal, and rational number operations), order of operations practice, and estimation. These are usually problems that I post on the Promethean Board.
I call my larger review activity the Flashback. I have it as the final 5 -10 minutes of the period. (This is after I do the lesson summary. Originally, I had it before the summary, but found that sometimes that meant the summary was too hurried. I want to have a solid summary to make sure that everyone walks away with the main ideas of the day so I switched the order. It’s easier to cut off the review early if I need to do so).I use the Flashback to review more time-consuming concepts. When I first started this a few years ago, this was a whole class activity. Over the last few years, though, I have begun to also use it as a chunk of time to differentiate the review to fill gaps in learning.
- Sometimes, I use tiered instruction where students progress through a series of tasks or games as they demonstrate mastery. An example of this would be the decimal division game that I use early in the year. I have three versions of a Jenga game. The simplest requires students to divide a decimal by a whole number. The second version of the game requires students to divide a decimal by a decimal. The final version of the game requires students to divide a decimal by a decimal but there are zeros in the quotient.
- Sometimes, I use intentional pairing where I pair a student with mastery with a student without mastery to work on a problem together. An example of this would be having students work on a more complicated word problem in which they need to make a double number line to solve a ratio problem.
- Sometimes I use a series of games that address different concepts, with each student playing a game that corresponds to a gap or weakness he or she has demonstrated. An example of this would be when I have some students who are still struggling with decimal division play the Jenga game, some students who still struggling with decimal multiplication playing a Zap game, some students who are struggling with fraction addition working with a fortune teller, and some students who are still struggling with fraction division playing Fraction Flip It.
Since these two review chunks of time are a regular part of an instructional day, I have added specific spaces for them in the Interactive Notebooks that we use. I use the first page for the day for the Math Minute, In, and Flashback. The lesson starts on the second page for the day.