Necessity is the mother of invention. Unfortunately, the “necessity” can be all too easily forgotten as an essential component in education. I teach what I teach, in part, out of necessity but it is my necessity not that of my students. I need to teach the curriculum that I teach because it aligns with the standards set forth by the state but it is not a burning necessity for my students no matter how many times I tell them the essential questions and how they will use it in the future. Knowing something only becomes a burning necessity in the mind of an eleven year old when they see a need to know it so they can do something they want right now.

So how do we create that need to know? I think we give kids real problems that they really want to solve. It’s not something that I can do every day, but I try really hard to find time and space to do it every year. To do this, I compact lessons and I accelerate where I can. This year, I managed to squeeze out almost a month at the end of the year to do an engineering project with my students.

**Request For Proposal**

Students were presented with a Request For Proposal (RFP) from a fake toy company. The proposal indicated that this fake toy company was seeking to expand market share to include more girls in their customer base for motorized toys. The toy company wanted those bidding on the contract to conduct market research and build a toy to meet that need. The toy company indicated that the toy must meet one of three different criteria: travel 3 m in 3 s, climb 1 m at a 15 degree slope in 2 s, or climb 1 m at a 30 degree slope.

**Creating a Team and Conducting Market Research**

Students were assigned teams and formed mini-companies that would bid on the RFP. They created a team name, logo, and slogan. Then, they conducted customer surveys with both adults and children in the target age range. They analyzed the data and determined the type of toy the customer was seeking.

**Building Technical Knowledge**

During the same time-frame, students built knowledge of how gear trains work. They began by building gears on a frame and exploring relationships between the rotations of the gears and the number of teeth on the gears (gear ratios, teeth ratios). Next, they added a motor and wheels so that they could calculate the rate on a 3 m course and measure the rim force on the wheel. They repeated this process with gear ratios ranging from 1:3 up to 225:1. As they did this, they were building important skill in construction as well as an understanding of the different kinds of performance they might expect from different kinds of gear ratios. From there, they measured rim force on the tooth of a gear connected to the motor. They did so for different sized gears and then learned how to calculate torque. With this knowledge, they could explain why certain gear ratios would not move and why certain gear ratios would be well-suited to climbing. At this point, they had built sufficient knowledge to answer the first stages of that burning question of how to build a toy that would meet each of the criteria.

**Making a Prototype**

Each team began construction of a basic prototype to meet their desired criteria. This amounted to attaching the motor and the desired gear train along with the wheels on the frame structure. Students then tested their motorized frame to see if it met the criteria. Once they had a basic working prototype, they started constructing a body to give the toy the desired aesthetics. As they constructed the body, they continued to test the toy to make sure the additional weight did not place them out of compliance with the criteria in the RFP. They repeated tests multiple times and used median values in order to eliminate outlier trials resulting from poor testing technique.

**Sealing the Deal**** – Writing a Written Proposal and Giving an Oral Presentation**

When the toy was completed, each team wrote a written report in response to the RFP and prepared an oral presentation. The final stage of the project required each team to present their toy to a panel of judges representing the fake toy company. I recruited 3 engineers and a soon-to-be lawyer to represent both the technical and business interests of the company for the panel of judges. (I am lucky enough to have Sandia National Laboratories nearby and willing to provide this kind of support to encourage excellence in math and science.) The judges selected a winning team based on the presentation and a demonstration of the toy. (The winning team members each got a gift card to Cold Stone Creamery).

While this last stage is not “math”, it is very much a part of what engineers do and I wanted my students to appreciate the importance of being able to communicate effectively as an engineer. Reading, writing, and speaking are just as much essential skills for an engineer as are math and science mastery

**Why It Mattered**

- Students got to experience the engineering process, which is so much more powerful than hearing about it.
- Girls had to learn how to make something and how to make it work. It’s not that they are any less adept, but many of them are much less experienced. This results in a certain amount of hesitancy, initially, Having to make it work pushes them past this hesitancy and they discover just how good they are at it. Giving girls this experience and confidence is important in leveling the playing field when it comes to engineering.
- Students used the math that they have learned this year to do something real that mattered to them (finding unit rates, conducting surveys, making data representations, analyzing data to make decisions, finding medians, using equations to calculate torque, measuring radii).
- Students had to find ways to work together – teams could not shift part way through the month long project.
- Students who lacked confidence as speakers learned that public speaking is a learned skill and that you get better at it with practice. (I made each team do a dry run of their presentation in front of their classmates and get feedback the day before the final presentations. They took the feedback and were so much better the second day.)

**Gallery of Toys**

**Presentations**